After a bit of a debugging session at home using Wireshark, my interest in networking matters has been piqued again. I couldn’t get a decent connection to PKR and was trying to work out why — still no idea on that front. But it got me thinking that I really ought to find out more about how networks actually work.
So, just to learn a bit about such things, I installed arpwatch to keep tabs on what devices are plugged into the office network. I now get emails every time a new device is plugged in, or when a device changes IP. Handy from a security standpoint — I’ll know if somebody hacks our wireless network, for example — and just interesting to see what goes on at the lower levels of the network.
Yesterday we had a couple of short power cuts. After the power came back on, I was getting lots of “flip flop” warnings from arpwatch, which seems to be its way of saying two devices with different MAC addresses have registered the same IP address.
Looking into it further, each time it was our the VOIP boxes we were given by our provider, Vonage. They’re actually Linksys routers, but we only use them as adapters to plug a normal telephone into. After a bit of investigation it would appear there’s a bit of a stonking bug in the firmware: if I turn both boxes off, then turn them back on at the same time, they seem to pick up the same IP address!
DHCPDISCOVER from 00:13:10:4a:00:01 via eth0 DHCPOFFER on 10.10.10.59 to 00:13:10:4a:00:01 via eth0 DHCPREQUEST for 10.10.10.59 (10.10.10.200) from 00:13:10:4a:00:01 via eth0 DHCPACK on 10.10.10.59 to 00:13:10:4a:00:01 via eth0
Fairly standard stuff - it’s asked for an IP, and got 10.10.10.59.
Box 2’s log is:
DHCPDISCOVER from 00:13:10:4a:00:02 via eth0 DHCPOFFER on 10.10.10.58 to 00:13:10:4a:00:02 via eth0 DHCPREQUEST for 10.10.10.59 (10.10.10.200) from 00:13:10:4a:00:02 via eth0: lease 10.10.10.59 unavailable. DHCPNAK on 10.10.10.59 to 00:13:10:4a:00:02 via eth0
So box 2 asks for an address; gets 10.10.10.58, but ignores it and requests 10.10.10.59 instead! The DHCP server
denies it with a
DHCPNAK but the router carries on anyway. From an ARP packet dump:
Cisco-Li_4a:00:02 ARP 10.10.10.59 is at 00:13:10:4a:00:02 Cisco-Li_4a:00:01 ARP 10.10.10.59 is at 00:13:10:4a:00:01
Oh dear; they’re both telling my network they’re on the same IP. I’m going to configure them both with static IPs — it’s the only way to ensure on the next power cut they don’t do the same and leave us without working phones.
NB: the MAC and IP addresses used here are illustrative only. ↩